Sample Process Essay Kool Aid

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1 by Anita J. Ghajar-Selim
EssaybyAnita J. Ghajar-Selim

2 Table of ContentsEssay……..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……..…Definition……………………………………………………………………………………………………….Difference between An Essay and A Paragraph…………………………………………………Different Types of Essays……….……………………………………………………………………………Argumentative………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Process…………………………………Cause and Effect……………………………………………………………………………………………………………Compare and Contrast……………………………………………………………………………………………………….Different Stages of Writing An Essay…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..Pre-writing Techniques…………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………Brainstorming……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..Free-writing…………………………………….……………………………………………………………………….……………………………..…Mind Mapping and Clustering……….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….The Journalist’s Questions..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Cubing………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………..………………..Writing An Outline………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Writing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Introductory Paragraph (Thesis Statement/Claim)………………………………………………………………………………….…Body Paragraphs …………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………Conclusion …………………………..……………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………Post-writing……………………….……………………………………………………….……….………………………………………………………………….Revision (CRAM) .………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………………………………Proofreading/ Editing (CUPS)……………………………………..………………….……………………………………………………………Publishing………………..………………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………………….

3 Definition of EssayA short piece of writing on a single or specific subject is called an essay. The minimum number of paragraphs for an essay is 3: Introduction, Body Paragraph, and Conclusion.Table of Contents

4 The Difference between a Paragraph and an Essay
A paragraph is essentially a mini essay. You need to expand each part of a paragraph to form an essay. Look at the picture below and see what each part of a paragraph changes into in an essay.Introduction(Thesis Statement)3 Paragraph Body(Supporting Paragraphs)Topic SentenceConcluding Paragraph3 Supporting SentencesConcluding SentenceEssayParagraphTable of Contents

5 What should an argumentative essay look like?
In an argumentative essay, you need to collect valid data and evidence to prove a point, and show your position on a topic while stating the opponents’ claims and refuting them. If you see the following key words in your prompt, be sure to write an argumentative essay.Discuss “X”Do you agree or disagree with “X”? Give your reasons.Defend or refute “X”.Do you think at “X” is valid? Defend your position.Example: Foundation Program at Qatar University should be reduced to 1 year instead of 2 years.What should an argumentative essay look like?Table of Contents

6 Argumentative Essay Organizational Pattern
Introduction and thesis statement: Give a background about what the Foundation Program is then state your position by saying; for example, “Foundation program should be reduced to one year instead of two years because of ……..A……, ……B………, and ……….C……… .Paragraph 1: Details and supports for point A.Paragraph 2: Details and supports for point B.Paragraph 3: Details and supports for point C.(Paragraph 4): The opposition group’s reasons. Refute these reasons with valid, justified reasons of yours.Conclusion: Restatement of the thesis statement.Read an argumentative essay sample.Table of Contents

7 Sample Argumentative Essay
A University in Every TownThe Turkish government is planning to open 15 new universities in developing provinces of Turkey. This is  a response to pressure coming from local MPs who in turn voice the demands of their constituencies. However, while the already existing 85 universities are wrestling with financial and academic difficulties, it does not seem to be a good idea to add new universities to the system of higher education.First of all, the new universities will experience staffing problems. That is, they will have difficulty finding  faculty that is qualified to teach in these budding universities. In our country the number of academicians who meet the academic requirements is limited. New universities will have two choices: either to draw from the existing pool or to employ under qualified people. To attract those instructors from other universities they will have to offer attractive incentives . However, since these will be state universities they will not have the necessary funds and most academics will be unwilling to go to small town universities where academic and life standards are below par. The only venue open to these universities will be to employ local professionals or under qualified instructors. The inevitable result will follow: a drop in the quality of education.In addition to recruitment problems, small town universities will have financial difficulties. The funds allocated to them by the state will not be enough to build from scratch all the facilities that make a university a "real university". A university is more than a few classrooms. Students will need dorms, gyms, cafeterias, sports facilities, labs and computers for their academic and social development. How many new universities can claim to have only a few of these facilities on their campuses? The result will be a small town "university" which consists of a sole building that houses classrooms and offices, and nothing more.It is argued that the establishment of a university in a developing town will contribute to the development of local culture, community and  economy. However, if a university is wrestling with staff recruitment problems, or if it cannot solve its financial difficulties it means that it cannot be of any help to the local community or economy either. It will only employ a few locals, provide substandard education to a few local youth, and it will not fulfill the the aim for which it was initially established.Universities are institutions of higher education and they need to provide education to satisfy certain standards. In order to provide such quality education they need to have  qualified teachers and must  provide minimum social and academic facilities. Since  funds are limited, we should raise the standard of our existing universities first. Only after that, should we invest in establishing new ones.Learn Useful Transition Words for Argumentative Essay.Table of Contents

8 Useful Transition Words for Argumentative Essay
ThereforeFor this reasonIt follows thatAs a resultBecauseHoweverConsequentlyGive one strong reason why or why not the length of the Foundation Program should be reduced using one of the above transition words.Table of Contents

9 Do’s and Don’ts of an Argumentative Essay
Write about the opposition’s ideas to show that you are not biasedDo not attack people; attack ideas and claims.Refute your opposition’s claims by giving logical, strong evidence.Do not use negative language to refer to your opponents.Bring facts, statistics, strong evidence to support your claim.Don’t say “I think” or “I believe”… .Table of Contents

10 What should a cause and effect essay look like?
In a cause and effect essay you should explain the causes (reasons) or the effects (results) of an event. If the event causes another event and that event is the cause for another one, etc., this is called a chain effect. When you write a cause and effect essay, try to keep your points to 2 or 3- each one of these should be discussed in a different paragraph. If you see the following key words in your prompt, be sure to write a cause and effect essay.What are the causes of “X”?What led to “X”?Why did “X” happen?Why does “X” happen?What would be the effects of “X”?Example:Write an essay on why more and more students are dropping Foundation courses?What should a cause and effect essay look like?Table of Contents

11 Cause and Effect Organizational Pattern
Introduction and thesis statement : “Foundation Program is a program at Qatar University which helps students close the gap between high school and college by improving their English, math, and computer. Although this program promises to help the students, more and more students are dropping out of it because………A………., ………………B………….., and …………C……… . “Paragraph 1: Discusses A with reasons and support.Paragraph 2: Discusses B with reasons and support.Paragraph 3: Discusses C with reasons and support.Conclusion: A summary of A, B, and C and restatement of the thesis statement. “The popularity of the Foundation Program with the student has severely suffered because of its ………..A……….., ………….B………………., ……………C………………. .”Read a cause and effect essay sample.Table of Contents

12 Sample Cause and Effect Essay
EFFECTS OF WATCHING TOO MUCH TVDiscoveries and invention of devices  are always welcome till we, humans, find a way to abuse its benefits and be adversely affected by it. This was the case when Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x-ray and within five years, the British Army was using a mobile x-ray unit to locate bullets and shrapnel in wounded soldiers in the Sudan. TV was also invented with positive thoughts in mind – there would be no national borders, education and communication would be worldwide, etc. However, we are now trying to overcome its physiological and psychological adverse effects on human beings.One of the physiological effects of watching TV in excessive amounts is eye-strain. It is true that there are specifications for watching TV; TV should be 5 m. away from the eye, the room should be adequately lit, TV should be placed at the same height with our eyes, etc. However, these do not prevent our eyes from getting tired if we keep watching TV for a long time. Another effect is obesity, which is widely observed in people who like watching TV and eating snacks  everyday (there is even a term “TV snacks” to refer to fast food that is suitable for eating in front of the TV). TV is such a powerful machine that people cannot get away from it – it is addictive.Apart from the physiological effects, TV also causes psychological effects. One  is a result of being exposed to violence. After seeing so many violent scenes on TV, people start considering violent actions normal and they lose their sensitivity to their environment. Partly connected to this effect, the interpersonal communication among people decreases. Being insensitive to the suffering of other people causes people to become alienated. Also, after coming home from work people seek to relax in front of the TV, and generally people prefer watching TV to talking to each other. This issue is very important since lack of interpersonal relationships mostly end with divorces.Shortly, inventions are meant to be beneficial for human beings, if we know how to benefit from them. TV is one of such inventions that need to be used for the right purpose only – being educated and entertained for a reasonable (according to age) period of time. We may, then, be safe from or at least reduce the adverse physiological and psychological effects of watching too much TV.Written by Oya Ozagac, September 2004Learn Useful Transition Words for Cause and Effect Essay.Table of Contents

13 Useful Transition Words in Cause and Effect Essay
BecauseConsequentlyThereforeFor this reasonAs a resultChoose one of the following topics and write 3 causes for them. Then, write a sentence about one of the causes using one of the above transition words-Global warmingEconomical crisis in the EmiratesStudents’ lack of motivation in the Foundation Program.Table of Contents

14 What should a process essay look like?
In a process paper you either write about the steps the reader needs to take to do something, or you describe how something is done. If you see the following key words in your prompt, be sure to write a Process Essay.Describe how “X” is done.List the steps involved in (preparing) “X”.Explain what happened in “X”.What is the procedure involved in (preparing) “X”?Example:Write an essay describing the steps in preparing for Eid Al Adha.What should a process essay look like?Table of Contents

15 Process Essay Organizational Pattern
Introduction and thesis statement: “Eid Al Adhha is the most important religious holiday celebrated by the Muslims around the world. In my family we always prepare for the Eid by …….A…………., …………B………, ……….C………, etc.Body: Describes all these steps in some details.Conclusion: Restatement of the introduction.Read A Process Essay Sample.Table of Contents

16 Learn Useful Transition Words for Process Essay.
Sample Process EssayKool-Aid, Oh yeah!It has been said that Kool-Aid makes the world go 'round. Let it be advised, however, that without the proper tools and directions, the great American beverage is nothing more than an envelope of unsweetened powder. There are five simple steps to create this candy-tasting concoction.Picking the proper packet of flavoring is the first step in making Kool-Aid. Check the grocer's shelf for a wide variety, ranging from Mountain Berry Punch to Tropical Blue Hawaiian. If it is a difficult decision for you, knock yourself out and buy two. The packets usually run under 65 cents.After choosing the flavor that best suits your taste buds, the second step is making sure that your kitchen houses some necessary equipment for making the Kool-Aid. Find a two-quart pitcher. Plastic is nice, but glass pitchers allow the liquid to shine through and add festive coloration to any refrigerator shelf. Next, find a long-handled wooden spoon, a one-cup measuring cup, a water faucet that spouts drinkable water, usable white sugar, and an ice cube tray full of ice. Then, you are ready to mix.Third, grab the left edge of the Kool-Aid packet between your thumb and index finger. With your other hand, begin peeling the upper-left corner until the entire top of the envelope is removed. Next, dump the contents of the envelope into the pitcher. Notice how the powder floats before settling on the bottom of the pitcher. Then, take the measuring cup and scoop two cups of sugar into the pitcher as well. At this point, adding the water is a crucial step. Place the pitcher under the water faucet and slowly turn on the cold water. If the water is turned on too quickly, powder will fly all over when the initial gusts of water hit. After the pitcher is filled within two inches of the top, turn the water off and get prepared to stir. With the wooden spoon submersed three-quarters of the way in the liquid, vigorously stir in a clockwise motion until all of the powder is dissolved. Taste it. If the Kool-Aid is not sweet enough, feel free to add more sugar.Fourth, when you are finished seasoning the Kool-Aid to your liking, rinse off the spoon and the measuring cup. Take a glass from the cupboard. An eight-ounce glass is usually sufficient. But stronger thirsts might prefer a 32-ounce mug. Add ice and then fill the glass with Kool-Aid. Find a comfortable chair, put your feet up, and drink away. After all, Kool-Aid makes the world go 'round.Learn Useful Transition Words for Process Essay.Table of Contents

17 Useful Transition Words in Process Essay
First, second, third, etc.NextThenFollowing thisFinallyAfter thisCan you name 3 steps you take to prepare for Eid Al Adha?Table of Contents

18 Comparison and Contrast Essay
In a Comparison and Contrast essay, you either examine the similarities (comparison) or differences (contrast) between two subjects. A Comparison or Contrast essay can be written in a block arrangement or a point by point format. If you see the following key words in your prompt, be sure to write a comparison and contrast essay.How does “X” differ from “Y”?Compare “X” and “Y”.What are the advantages and disadvantages of “X” and “Y”?Example:Which would you rather study at--Qatar University or College of North Atlantic?Look at the Block Arrangement for Compare and Contrast Essay.Table of Contents

19 Look at the Point by Point format for Compare and Contrast Essay.
Compare and Contrast Organizational Pattern (Block or Subject-by-Subject)Pattern 1Qatar UniversityA. AdvantagesB. DisadvantagesCNAQLook at the Point by Point format for Compare and Contrast Essay.Table of Contents

20 Compare and Contrast Organizational Pattern (Point-by-Point)
I. AdvantagesA. Qatar UniversityB. CNAQII. DisadvantagesLearn Useful Transition Words for Compare and Contrast Essay.Table of Contents

21 Useful Transitional Words in Compare and Contrast Essay
On the other handSimilarlyYetUnlike A, B…likewiseButWrite 2 sentences (one comparison, one contrast) for the 2 mentioned universities. Use 2 of the transition words above.Table of Contents

22 Pre-Writing

23 Pre-Writing Techniques
Before you start writing an essay, try to choose one of the following pre-writing techniques. They save time and help you develop a very well balanced and organized essay.BrainstormingFree-writingMind Mapping and ClusteringThe Journalist’s QuestionsCubingTable of Contents

24 Learn How to Brainstorm.
What is brainstorming?Brainstorming is a very good way to prepare yourself for writing an essay. As the name indicates, it looks like a storm of different ideas in your brain.These ideas don’t need to be related or polished.Brainstorming can be done individually or with a group, but you will most likely need to do an individual brainstorming for a classroom assignment.Brainstorming often helps you come up with very creative ideas.Learn How to Brainstorm.Table of Contents

25 How to BrainstormFor 5 minutes write whatever comes to mind, words or phrases regarding the topic. Keep writing until your time is up.Don’t worry about grammar, spelling, or whether this idea is crazy or not.Check the list and put a star next to the words that stand out and seem more important than the others. Write down your ideas so that you don’t forget them.Finally, see if any of the items on the list can be grouped together under a bigger umbrella to form a good thesis statement for your essay.Table of Contents

26 Free-writingFree-Writing is another good technique in your pre-writing stage.Give yourself a limited amount of time. You are free to write about anything.Even if you cannot think of anything write “I cannot write” or anything else until something comes to your mind.Don’t focus on spelling, grammar, or punctuation.Table of Contents

27 Clustering/Mind Mapping
Clustering and Mind Mapping are more organized than free-writing or brainstorming.You need to have a map of where you are going with your thoughts. Anything you write down should be in line with the topic of your assignment.Write the topic in a circle or rectangle in the middle of your paper and draw lines to other circles or rectangles with ideas related to your topic.While mind mapping is more useful for chapter reviews, test preparation, and organizing, clustering is a good tool for short entries or essays. It should take no longer than 2 minutes to do.See Examples of Mind Mapping , Clustering, and Venn Diagram.Table of Contents

28 http://www. mind-mapping. co
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29 Advantages of University Education
communitiesRespectEducated circlesSocialscholarshipGood jobAdvantages of University EducationPersonalEconomicalSelf-esteemConfidenceintellectual growthTable of Contents

30 See An Example of Venn Diagram.
Venn Diagrams have been used to compare and contrast two things or two groups of things. We always put the similar qualities of these two objects in the overlapping circle and the different qualities in the areas around it.Normally, people draw a rectangle around the Venn Diagram and call it a universe (object they are dealing with, such as vehicles, animals, etc.), but we will only stick to the two circles in prewriting for our essays.See An Example of Venn Diagram.Table of Contents

31 Venn Diagram Sample CAN-Q QU College University
Co-educational In Doha SegregatedOnly Canadian teachers First Higher All nationalities EducationsExpensive Tuitions Accredited Affordable tuitionsTable of Contents

32 The Journalist’s Questions
Journalists often ask the following questions to make sure they have covered the story from every possible angle. We can use the same questions while writing an essay.Who?What?Where?When?Why?How?Table of Contents

33 CubingBy using this technique, you can look at your topic from six different angles. Try to see if by doing any of these to your topic, you can come up with interesting ideas to write about.DescribeCompareApplyAnalyzeAssociateArgueTable of Contents

34 OutlineAn outline is a rough draft or summary of the main features of a given topic.A good outline should have the four following characteristics:parallelism,coordination,subordination,divisionTable of Contents

35 Outline: ParallelismParallelism means that all the head topics in an outline should agree in form, i.e., if you use a noun in the first head, the rest should be nouns, if you use a verb, the rest should be verbs, etc.Example 1:BooksVideosAudiosExample 2:Reading booksWatching VideosListening to Audio booksTable of Contents

36 Outline: Coordination
Coordination means that all the items in the outline should have the same importance or value.Example (correct coordination):Lung CancerLiver CancerGum CancerExample (Incorrect Coordination):DiabetesTable of Contents

37 Outline: Subordination
Every outline has major and minor headings. You should always go from the more general to more specific. But remember that each subdivision should have the same relationship to the whole.Example (Good subordination)A. Cancers1, Lung2. LiverB. Tumors1. Brain2. StomachExample (Bad subordination)1. Lung2. Painful3. FatalTable of Contents

38 Read about Forms of An Outline.
Outline: DivisionIf you want to divide a part of an outline, you should have at least two levels. There should never be an A without a B, or a 1 without a 2.Example:A. Computers1. Hardware2. SoftwareB. Computer uses1. Personal2. ProfessionalRead about Forms of An Outline.Table of Contents

39 Read Some Sample Outlines.
Forms of an outlineTopicSentenceWhatever form you decide to use, be consistent. Don’t switch between the forms.

A good process essay must focus on a task that is simple enough to be described understandably but complex enough that readers might benefit from reading an explanation. Some processes, such as tying shoes, may seem simple to perform but can be fairly difficult to describe in writing. Describing how to make something simple or how to perform a fairly simple task are typically good topics for a process essay.

Process essays are often assigned in introductory writing courses because they force writers think critically about all the steps that go into a specific process. After choosing a topic, it’s a good idea to draw up a quick outline of all the steps the process involves and all the necessary materials. Preliminary outlining can help writers make sure they don’t leave out some important step or item.

While a process essay is almost always written in the form of sequential steps, writers should try to avoid overuse of transitional words such as “next” or “then.” Instead, they should consider phrasing that emphasizes the importance of different steps and maintains readers’ attention.

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